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Other testicular & scrotal problems

There are other problems that can happen with your testicles and scrotum.

Epididymal cyst

This is a collection of fluid (called a cyst) inside your epididymis, which is the tube that stores and transports sperm. They're very common, usually painless and usually don't cause any problems. If they get large, they can be uncomfortable. You may need surgery if you have a large cyst.


This is a collection of fluid in your scrotum that causes swelling. It's often painless and not dangerous. If it gets large, it can cause an ache or feeling of heaviness in your scrotum. A hydrocele usually goes away by itself. But if it gets very large or painful, your doctor may recommend surgery to remove the fluid.

Testicular torsion

This is when a testicle has turned around in your scrotum. This can cause severe pain in your scrotum and lower abdomen. It can also cause nausea and swelling of your testicle. Injury, exposure to cold temperatures and excessive exercise can all cause testicular torsion. Your doctor may be able to treat this by repositioning your testicle. In severe cases, you'll need surgery.

Undescended testes

This is when one or both testicles don't sit in the scrotum. Approximately one in 25 boys are born with undescended testicles. Boys with undescended testicles don't usually need treatment. The testicles will usually move into the scrotum by themselves by the age of three months. If this doesn’t happen, surgery may be needed to move the testicle into the scrotum.


This is a swelling of a vein or veins in your scrotum. It's caused by the valves in the veins not working properly and is similar to a varicose vein. You can have a varicocele in one or both testicles. Often you have no symptoms. If you have problems such as aching or discomfort, the varicocele can be treated by embolization. This is a procedure that redirects the blood flow away from the varicocele.

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Written by HealthInfo clinical advisers. Endorsed by clinical director, Urology, Canterbury DHB. Last reviewed November 2019.


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Testicle & scrotum problems in boys

Page reference: 47530

Review key: HITSP-26704